القرآن THE QUR’AN
Mushaf (a collection of Suhuf)
- Plural: Musahif
- Verses were written in different materials, which were collected and compiled in one volume.
Al-Kitab (The Book)
- We have certainly sent down to you a Kitab in which is your mention. Then will you not reason? [Al-Anbiya 21:10]
Adh-Dhikr (The Reminder)
- Indeed, it is We who sent down the Dhikr and indeed, We will be its guardian. [Al-Hijr 15:9]
Al-Furqan (The Criterion)
- Blessed is He who sent down the Furqan upon His Servant that he may be to the worlds a warner. [Al-Furqan 25:1]
At-Tanzil (The One Sent Down, Revelation)
- And indeed, it (this Qur’an) is Latanzilu of the Lord of the worlds. [Ash-Shu’ara 26:192
Ash-Shifa (The Cure)
- It shows that at the end the truth will defeat falsehood
- O mankind, there has to come to you instruction from your Lord and Shifa (healing) for what is in the breasts and guidance and mercy for the believers. [Yunus 10:57] [see also An-Nahl 16:69, Al-Isra 17:82, Fussilat 41:44]
Al-Huda (The Guide)
- And We have not revealed to you the Kitab, [O Muhammad], except for you to make clear to them that wherein they have differed and as Huda (guidance) and mercy for a people who believe. [An-Nahl 16:64]
MEANING OF THE QUR’AN
It is the words of Allah Ta’ala revealed to the Prophet ﷺ sent down through angel Jibril (aleyhis salam) transmitted by Tawatur, both verbally and in writing.
- Words of Allah: means it excluded the speech of creatures
- Revealed to to the Prophet: means the revelation sent down to other prophets are not considered Quran although they are the words of Allah
- Sent down: means any speech of Allah that was not sent down is not considered Quran. His Words are infinite which is one of His attributes. Allah by ordering the angels to do something is not Qur’an although it is His Words
- Transmitted by Tawatur: means transmitted by numerous persons in 2 ways: a) oral (verbal) and b) written (book)
REVELATION DESCENDED IN 3 STAGES
First descent (general)
- From Allah Ta’ala to the Preserved Tablet (Al-Lawhah Al-Mahfudh) in a way and time He only knows
Second descent (specific)
- From the Preserved Tablet to Bayt Al-Izzah (house of honor) located in As-Sama Ad-Dunya (the lowest heavens) altogether (the whole book) in Laylah Al-Qadar (night of decree).
- In this night, the angels copy from the whole book the decree for the next whole year.
Third descent (piecemeal)
- From Bayt Al-Izzah to the Prophet ﷺ on earth in stages.
- Nazala means “revealed in stages.”
THE PERIOD OF REVELATION
- Lasted for 22 years, 5 months and 14 days (rounded-off to 23yrs).
- Nearly 13 years in Makkah and 10 years in Madinah.
- The most important and lasting miracle is the facts and events are scientifically proven then and now.
- Prophecies and predictions will come true in the future.
THE ONLY BOOK FREE FROM ERRORS
- Because Allah Himself will guard it. “Indeed, it is We who sent down the Qur’an and indeed, We will be its guardian.” [Al-Hijr 15:9]
[Main source: Tafsir Ibn Kathir, other different sources including my own notes accumulated from long years of study]