Structure of the Mushaf

ARRANGEMENT OF CHAPTERS AND VERSES

  • The order of the verses within the chapter was determined by the Prophet ﷺ under the guidance of angel Jibril. It was done by way of revelation from Allah Ta’ala. Proof: When the verse “And be afraid of the Day when you shall be brought back to Allah…” [Al-Baqarah 2:280] was revealed, Jibril (aleyhis salam) said to the Prophet ﷺ: “Put it after the 280th verse of Al-Baqarah.”
  • The arrangement of the chapters always has a controversy over it, but it does appear that it was the Sahaba who simply decided the arrangement. Every Sahabi who had his own personal copy had different arrangement of chapters, until it was standardized the same way we have today. [Seerah by Dr. Yasir Qadhi, from 24 until 30 minutes]

DIVISION OF TEXT

Singular Plural
Number of parts Juz Ajza 30
Number of chapters Surah Suwar, Suwarat, Surat 114
Number of verses Ayah Ayat, Ayy, Ayay More than 6,000
Number of words Kalimah Kalimat More than 77,000
Number of letters Harf Haruf, Ahraf More than 320,000
Number of pages Safhah Safhat 604

JUZ (PART)

  • Plural: Ajza
  • Number of Juz: 30

SURAH (CHAPTER)

  • Plural: Suwar, Suwarat, Surat
  • Number of Surah: 114

LITERAL MEANING OF SURAH

  1. Fence because it is a passage wise division, starting with Bismillah and ending with Bismillah
  2. Degree because it leads us from darkness to light as if we are going higher by understanding and applying it in our daily life
  3. Elevation and height because it is a part of the Qur’an referring to whatever contains it implying that a reader is moving from one stage to another stage because it is complete and perfect

2 KINDS OF SURAH

  1. Makki Surah
  • Revealed before Hijrah regardless of the place of revelation
  • Addressed to all mankind
  • Short chapters
  1. Madani Surah
  • Revealed after Hijrah regardless of the place of revelation
  • Addressed to believers
  • Long chapters

4 DIVISIONS OF SURAH

  1. At-Tiwal
  • 9 long chapters
  • From Al-Baqarah (2) to Yunus (10)
  1. Al-Mi’in
  • Chapters with verses above 100 or nearly equal to it
  • Fom Hud (11) to Fatir (35)
  1. Al-Mathani
  • Chapters with verses less than 100
  • From Yasin (36) to Al-Hujurat (49)
  1. Al-Mufassal
  • Plural: Al-Mufassalat
  • Last section
  • From Qaf (50) to An-Nas (114)

AYAH (VERSE)

  • Plural: Ayat, Ayy, Ayay
  • Number of verses: more than 6,000

LITERAL MEANING OF AYAH

  • Sign or pause because it separates the word before and after
  • Wonder because no one is able to produce something like it

2 KINDS OF AYAH

  1. Muhkamat (clear verses)
  • They have only one meaning according to the rules of the Arabic language or else the meaning of the Ayah is clearly known
  1. Mutashabihat (unclear verses)
  • They can have many meanings according to the rules of the Arabic language.
  • Assigning meanings to these Ayat requires thorough thinking so that acceptable meanings are given to them
  • If meanings are assigned to them, this must be done in a manner that complies with the language and the religion, and does not contradict the Ayat that are Muhkamat. Likewise, the Ahadith do not contradict one another, and they do not contradict the Ayat of the Qur’an.

PROOF

Allah is the One Who has sent down to the Prophet the Book that contains Muhkamat Ayat, which are the foundation of the Book, and other Ayat which are Mutashabihat.  [Ali Imran 3:7]

KALIMAH

  • Plural: Kalimat
  • Number of words: more than 77,000
  • Meaning: one word
  • Might consists of 2 letters like Ma ما and La لا
  • Might also contain more than 10 letters like Layastakhlifannakum ليستخلفنهم [An-Nur 24:55, also 11:28 and 15:22]
  • Might constitute an entire Ayah like Wal Fajr والفجر [89:1, also 93:1, 103:1, 55:64]
  • Middle word of the Quran – Walyatalattaf وليتلطف [Al-Kahf 18:19]

HARF (LETTER)

  • Plural: Haruf, Ahraf
  • Number of Harf: more than 320,000

SAFHAH (PAGE)

  • Plural: Safhat
  • Number of Safhah: 604

[Main source: Tafsir Ibn Kathir, other different sources including my own notes accumulated from long years of study]

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