The Prayer

It is Fard (obligation) that must be performed only for Allah ﷻ according to the manner in which our Prophet ﷺ did. Make it right, with its conditions and pillars.

When you have finished the prayer, remember Allah standing, sitting down, and lying down on your sides, but when you are free from danger, perform the prayer. Verily, the prayer is enjoined on the believers at fixed hours. [An-Nisa 4:103]

Recite, [O Muhammad], what has been revealed to you of the Book and establish prayer. Indeed, prayer prohibits immorality and wrongdoing, and the remembrance of Allah is greater. And Allah knows that which you do. [Al-‘Ankabut 29:45]

Important to know…

 HALAL حلال

  • Allowed / Lawful
  • Anything or any act that Allah allowed

HARAM حرام

  • Plural: Muharramat
  • Prohibited / Forbidden / Unlawful
  • An act that Allah has absolutely prohibited
  • Punished if done; rewarded if avoided

MAKRUH مكروه

  • Hated / Disliked / Undesirable
  • An act that Allah disliked, yet did not prevent it completely
  • Its category is less than the Haram
  • No punishment if done; rewarded if avoided; better to avoid it

MANDUB المندوب

  • Also called Sunnah, Nafilah (plu. Nawafil), Tatawwu


  • Recommended / Desirable / Preferred
  • An act that Allah asks to be done, but does not strictly requires

MUBAH مباح

  • Permissible / Allowed (Ja’iz) / Lawful
  • An act that Allah neither orders nor forbids
  • No reward no punishment for doing unless the intention is for Allah
  • Example: drinking, eating playing sports

ADA اداء

  • To perform an act of worship on its prescribed time

QADA قضاء

  • Making-up of missed act of worship (to perform it outside of its time)

FARD فرض

  • Plural: Fara’id فرائض / Furud فروض
  • A prescribed duty/a command
  • An act that Allah strictly requires to be done
  • Rewarded if done; punished if not done

FARD AYN فرض عين

  • An individual duty
  • A personal obligation
  • An act that must be done by every individual
  • Example: 5 pillars of Islam

FARD KIFAYAH فرض كفاية

  • A collective duty
  • An act that requires a group of Muslims in a community to do to suffice the others
  • Example: preparing the dead for burial and funeral prayer


  • Plural: Shurut شروط
  • A prerequisite; a precondition; a requirement that must be done before the act
  • An act that must be done before doing an act of worship
  • One is not excused due to ignorance, forgetfulness or deliberate omission
  • Act is invalid without it
  • Example: Istinja is a Shart of Wudu, Wudu is a Shart of Salah

RUKN ركن

  • Plural: Arkan
  • A corner/pillar
  • An act or a deed, without which the act would be incomplete/wrong
  • One is not excused due to ignorance, forgetfulness or deliberate omission
  • Act is invalid without it
  • Example: Al-Fatihah

WAJIB واجب

  • Plural: Wajibat
  • Obligatory
  • A basic element of an act or a deed, without which the act would be incomplete
  • Example: Takbiratul Intiqal

SUNNAH السنة

  • Plural: Sunan سنن
  • Voluntary/optional
  • An act or a deed, without which the act would still complete/correct
  • Example: Isti’adhah
  • Literal meaning: path, system, custom, tradition, method, or way of life
  • Islamic meaning: the way of the whole life of the Prophet ﷺ
  1. Importance of Sunnah
  • …And whatever the Messenger has given you – take; and what he has forbidden you – refrain from. And fear Allah ; indeed, Allah is severe in penalty…. [Al-Hashr 59:7]
  • He who obeys the Messenger, has indeed obeyed Allah, but he who turns away, then we have not sent you. [An-Nisa 4:80]
  • It is not for a believer, man or woman, when Allah and His Messenger have decreed a matter that they should have any option in their decision. And whoever disobeys Allah and His Messenger, he has indeed strayed in a plain error. [Al-Ahzab 33:36]
  1. Sunnah includes 3 things:
    1. As-Sunnah Al-Qawliyah (السنة القـولية): anything that he said. Narration of Sunnah is called Hadith (plu. Ahadith) which literally means “any talking, speech
    2. As-Sunnah Al-Fi’liyah (السنة الفـعـلية): anything that he said and did (actions and manners)
    3. As-Sunnah At-Taqririyah (السنة التقـريرية): anything that he approved, did not approve, ordered, gave rulings
Sources: Fiqh us-Sunnah by Shiekh Sayyid Sabiq, Prayer of the Prophet ﷺ by Sheikh Muhammad Nasiruddin Al-Albani, Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence by Muhammad Hashim Kamali and Sheikh Salman Al-Oudah (