Salah: Shurut, Arkan, Wajibat

SALAH

  • Plural: Salawat صلوات
  • Literal meaning: supplication
  • Islamic meaning: Salah starts with Takbir and ends with Taslim with specific words & action, prescribed 5 times a day & made obligatory on Al-Isra Wa Al-Mi’raj.

SHART

  • Shart شرط (plu. Shurut شروط)
  • A prerequisite; a precondition; a requirement that must be done before the act
  • An act that must be done before doing an act of worship
  • One is not excused due to ignorance, forgetfulness or deliberate omission
  • Act is invalid without it

 9 Preconditions (Shurut) of Salah

  1. Islam (belief in Allah)
  2. Aql (sanity)
  3. Tamayiz (maturity): physical signs or age 15
  4. Nadafah (cleanliness): body, clothes, place
  5. Taharah (purity) from major and minor impurities: “Allah would not accept any Salah without being pure.” (Wudu – Ghusl – Tayammum)
  6. Satar Al-Awrah (covering the private parts). Awrah are the parts of the body which must be covered and must not be exposed to others). Use aThawb, a loose outer covering the body.
  7. Waqt As-Salah (timing of prayer)
  8. Itijah Al-Qiblah (facing the direction of prayer, i.e. K’abah in Makkah, KSA)
  9. Niyah (intention) in the heart

RUKN

  • Rukn ركن (plu. Arkan اركان)
  • A corner/pillar
  • An act or a deed, without which the act would be incomplete/wrong
  • One is not excused due to ignorance, forgetfulness or deliberate omission
  • Act is invalid without it
  • Do the missed pillar and do Sujud As-Sahu (prostration of forgetfulness)

14 Pillars (Arkan) of Salah

  1. Qiyam (standing straight)
  2. Takbirah Al-Ihram (opening Takbir)
  3. Reciting Surah Al-Fatihah
  4. Ruku (bowing)
  5. Rising from Ruku and standing straight
  6. Sujud (prostration)
  7. Jilsah/Julus/Jalasah: sitting between 2 Sujud
  8. Prostration (Sujud)
  9. Rising from Sujud
  10. The final Tashah-hud
  11. Sitting for the final Tashah-hud
  12. Taslim (saying the salutation)
  13. Having calmness (Kushu) during all of these acts
  14. Performing the above in the correct order

WAJIB

  • Wajib واجب (plu. Wajibat واجبات)
  • Obligatory
  • A basic element of an act, without which the act would be incomplete
  • One is excused due to ignorance or forgetfulness. Salah remains valid and Sujud As-Sahu can compensate for it. However, deliberate omission makes the Salah invalid.

8 Obligations (Wajibat) of Salah

  1. Takbirat Al-Intiqal: Saying “ALLAHU AKBAR”الله اكبر (Allah is greater than everything) in moving to the next act in Salah (except number 3)
  2. Tasbih: Saying “SUBHANA RABBIYAL ADHIM” العظيم سبحان ربي during Ruku
  3. Upon rising from Ruku: Saying “SAMI ALLAHU LIMAN HAMIDAH” سمع الله لمن حمده (Allah hears the one who praises Him)
  4. Tahmid: Saying “RABBANA WA LAKAL HAMD” ربنا ولك الحمد (Our Lord, and to You is all praise) for both Imam and follower
  5. Tasbih: Saying “SUBHANA RABBIYAL ALA” سبحان ربي الأعلى (Glory be to my Lord, the Highest) during Sujud
  6. Jilsah/Julus: Saying: “RABBIGHFIRLI” رب أغفرلي (O my Lord, forgive me) between 2 Sujud
  7. Tashah-hud (testimony) / Tahiyyat (greetings) in a 3/4-unit Salah: Saying the first Tashah-hud – AT-TAHIYYATU LILLAH WAS SALAWATU WAT TAYYIBAT. ASSALAMU ALAYKA AYYUHAN NABIYYU WA RAHMATULLAHI WA BARAKATUH. ASSALAMU ALAYNA WA ALA IBADILLAHIS SALIHIN.  ASH-HADU AN LA ILAHA ILLALLAH WA ASH-HADU ANNA MUHAMMAD RASULULLAH.
  8. Sitting for the first Tashah-hud