JURISPRUDENCE ON MAJOR PILGRIMAGE
HAJJ is the fifth pillar of Islam and the last one to be revealed, in the 9th year of Hijrah.
PROOFS FROM THE QUR’AN
- And complete the HAJJ and UMRAH for Allah…. [Al-Baqarah 2:196]
- And [due] to Allah from the people is a HAJJ to the House – for whoever is able to find thereto a way. But whoever disbelieves – then indeed, Allah is free from need of the worlds. [Ali Imran 3:97]
- And proclaim the HAJJ to men; they will come to thee on foot and (mounted) on every kind of lean camel coming through deep ravines.” [Al-Hajj 22:27]
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN HAJJ AND UMRAH
WHAT IS HAJJ?
- Literal meaning in Arabic: Hajj is to set out towards a definite objective.
- Islamic meaning: Hajj is a journey to Makkah (Al-Ka’bah/The Sacred House) obeying Allah’s order for Hajj and seeking His pleasure.
- Major visit/pilgrimage
- It is obligatory once in a lifetime of a Muslim.
- Happens only once a year, done at fixed time (Dhul Hijjah 8-13)
- Many rites (difficult) such as Tawaf, Sa’iy, Wuquf Arafat, Rami, etc.
- Al-Hajj Al-Akbar
3 KINDS OF HAJJ
- Qiran (Umrah and Hajj, 1 Ihram)
- Tamattu (Umrah and Hajj with a break in between, 2 Ihram)
- Ifrad (Hajj only, 1 Ihram)
WHAT IS UMRAH?
- Literal meaning in Arabic: Umrah is derived from the word “I’timar” meaning a visit.
- Islamic meaning: Umrah means visiting the Sacred House, to fulfill specific rites (Manasik) in drawing near to Allah.
- Minor visit/pilgrimage
- It is voluntary worship
- Happens many times, done at anytime during the year
- Simple rites (easy) such as Tawaf, Sa’iy, etc.
- Al-Hajj Al-Asghar
PRECONDITIONS (SHURUT) OF HAJJ AND UMRAH
- Sanity (sound state of mind)
- Maturity (adult)
- Free (not a slave)
- Ability to do so
Ability means the following:
- Financially able (have the means) to afford a journey
- Physically capable to do it
- Way is safe and free from any danger
- A woman is required to be accompanied by her husband or Mahram (men whom she cannot marry)
WHO IS DOING HAJJ?
- Muslims coming from all parts of the globe
- Majority come by plane to Saudi Arabia’s major seaport, Jeddah, about 45 miles west of Makkah.
- Others arrive in Jeddah by ship.
- Others travel by bus or private car from neighboring countries as well as from various parts of Saudi Arabia itself.
THE SEASONS OF HAJJ
- The months of Hajj are Shawwal, Dhul Qi’dah and Dhul Hijjah.
- By the ten nights (i.e. the first ten days of the month of Dhul Hijjah). [Al-Fajr 89:2]
- And remember Allah during specific numbered days [Ayyam Ma’dudat]. Then whoever hastens [his departure] in two days – there is no sin upon him; and whoever delays [until the third] – there is no sin upon him – for him who fears Allah. And fear Allah and know that unto Him you will be gathered. [Al-Baqarah 2:203]
- Ayyam Ma’dudat refers either to the first 10 days of Dhul Hijjah or the last 10 nights of Ramadan.
The Prophet ﷺ said: “Whoever wants to perform Hajj, let him hurry to do it.” [Narrated by Imam Ahmad, Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah]
WHEN IS HAJJ TAKING PLACE?
- From the 8th to the 13th of Dhul Hijjah, the 12th month of the Islamic year
- With its climax on the 9th of that month, which is the Day of Arafat
WHERE IS HAJJ TAKING PLACE?
- Places in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
WHY MOSTLY IN THE DESERT?
- It is meant to be done in a desert where there is no distraction.
- To live in a harsh condition
- To leave behind all the luxury
- Teaches humility, patience…
- To submit to the will of Allah
WHY WE DO HAJJ?
- In commemoration of Prophet Ibrahim (aleyhis salam), as an example of his total submission and obedience, especially in his willingness to sacrifice what he loved most in the world – his son Ismael – at God’s command. [Read Surah As-Saffat 37:99-113]
- Complete submission and devotion to Allah seeking His pleasure: The totality of a Muslim’s being, with his body and soul, with his time, possessions and the temporary sacrifice of all ordinary comforts, conveniences and tokens of status and individuality which one normally enjoys, to assume for a few days the condition of a pilgrim.
WHAT TO DO BEFORE HAJJ?
- Pay your debts; if you cannot pay, ask permission from the debtor
- Sunnah: Pay Sadaqah (charity)
- Leave enough provision for your family until you come back
- Take enough money for the journey
- Write your Will
- Sunnah to bid farewell
- Including relatives, friends, colleagues
- Forgive those who sinned against you
- Ask forgiveness
- To repent for all your sins
- To seek His pleasure by Ikhlas (sincerity) without Riya (show off)
- To migrate for Allah
- To be simple and humble with other people
- To leave bad people
- To start with good people
- Company (Hamlah)
- Choose the best company
- Ihram clothes
- Personal clothes
- Passport and plane ticket
- Vaccination card
- Prescription medicines
- Sunglass with strap
- Safety pins
- Pocket Qur’an
- Portable water thermos
- Counter medications: Panadol, Chloraseptic, Lozenges…
To be continued… Excellence of Hajj