Sawm: Fard


  1. Fard/Wajib
  2. Tatawwa/Sunnah/Mustahab/Nafl
  3. Maharem (sinful, forbidden)
  4. Makhruh (disliked, not recommended)

Fard, Wajib
(obligatory, compulsory, must, no choice)

  1. Ramadan
  2. Nadhar (fulfillment of a vow)
  3. Kaffarat-ul-Yamin (expiation for making a false oath)
  4. During Hajj, if no Hadi (sacrificial animal) 10 days (3 days before Hajj before Dhul Hijjah 8 and 7 days after Hajj – on Dhul Hijjah 11. [read Al-Baqarah 2:196]
  5. Zihar
  6. Atonement for killing a soul by mistake

During Hajj, if no Hadi (sacrificial animal)

  • Fast 10 days: 3 days before Hajj (before Dhul Hijjah 8) and 7 days after Hajj (can start on Dhul Hijjah 11)
  • And perform properly (i.e. all the ceremonies according to the ways of Prophet Muhammad SAW), the Hajj and ‘Umrah (i.e. the pilgrimage to Makkah) for Allah. But if you are prevented (from completing them), sacrifice a Hady (animal, i.e. a sheep, a cow, or a camel, etc.) such as you can afford, and do not shave your heads until the Hady reaches the place of sacrifice. And whosoever of you is ill or has an ailment in his scalp (necessitating shaving), he must pay a Fidyah (ransom) of either observing Saum (fasts) (three days) or giving Sadaqah (charity – feeding six poor persons) or offering sacrifice (one sheep). Then if you are in safety and whosoever performs the ‘Umrah in the months of Hajj, before (performing) the Hajj, (i.e. Hajj-at-Tamattu’ and Al-Qiran), he must slaughter a Hady such as he can afford, but if he cannot afford it, he should observe Sawm (fasts) three days during the Hajj and seven days after his return (to his home), making ten days in all. This is for him whose family is not present at Al-Masjid Al-Haram (i.e. non-resident of Makkah). And fear Allah much and know that Allah is Severe in punishment. [Al-Baqarah 2:196]

ZIHAR الظهار

A husband saying to his wife “You are like the back of my mother.” So he made himself unlawful to his wife (i.e. he cannot have sex with her until he do expiation (in order):

  • Free a slave
  • Fast for 2 consecutive months
  • Feed sixty (60) poor people


A believer cannot slay another believer except by mistake for which the retaliation is to set free a believing slave and pay the appointed Diyah (blood money) to the relatives of the deceased unless the relatives wave aside the payment. If the person slain is from your enemies but himself is a believer, the penalty is to set free a believing slave. If the person slain is one of those with whom you have a peace treaty, the penalty is the same as that for a slain believer. If this is not possible, the defendant has to fast for two consecutive months, asking God to accept his repentance. He is All-Knowing and All-Wise. And whoever kills a believer intentionally, his recompense is Hell to abide therein, and the Wrath and the Curse of Allah are upon him, and a great punishment is prepared for him. [An-Nisa 4:92-93]