The Ma’idah is the table that has food on it. The disciples asked Jesus (Alayhis Salam – peace be upon him) to supplicate to Allah ﷻ to send a table of food down to them that they could eat from it every day so they can offer acts of worship more. And Allah granted his request.
The following verses testify that the table was sent down to the Children of Israel during the time of Jesus as a result of Allah’s accepting his supplication to Him. This is the story of the Ma’idah, the name of which Surah (chapter) Al-Ma’idah bears.
[Al-Ma’idah 5:112] – Allah said, “Remember when Al-Hawariyyun (the disciples) said, “O `Isa, son of Maryam! Can your Lord send down to us a Ma’idah from heaven?” `Isa said: “Fear Allah, if you are indeed believers.” (Jesus answered them by saying, “Have Taqwa of Allah! And do not ask for this, for it may become a trial for you, but trust in Allah for your provisions, if you are truly believers.”)
[Al-Ma’idah 5:113] – They said: “We wish to eat thereof.” (we need to eat from it) and to satisfy our hearts (to be stronger in faith) (when we witness it descending from heaven as sustenance for us), and to know that you have indeed told us the truth (of your Message and our faith in you increases and also our knowledge), and that we ourselves be its witnesses (testifying that it is a sign from Allah, as proof and evidence that you are a Prophet, and attesting to the truth of what you have brought us).
[Al-Ma’idah 5:114] – “Isa, son of Maryam, said: “O Allah, our Lord! Send us from heaven a table spread (with food) that there may be for us – for the first and the last of us – a festival.” (As-Suddi commented that the Ayah (verse) means, “We will take that day on which the table was sent down as a day of celebration, that we and those who come after us would consider sacred.” And a sign from You (proving that You are able to do all things and to accept my supplication, so that they accept what I convey to them from You); and provide us with sustenance (a delicious food from You that does not require any effort or hardship), for You are the Best of Sustainers.” So the angels brought the table down containing seven fish and seven pieces of bread and placed it before them. So the last group of people ate as the first group did.
[Al-Ma’idah 5:115] – “Allah said: “I am going to send it down unto you, but if any of you after that disbelieves…” (by denying this sign and defying its implication) then I will punish him with a torment such as I have not inflicted on anyone among all the Alamin (mankind and jinn).” (Among the people of your time).
[Tafsir Ibn Kathir]