These are very old files collected from different sources: some through taking my own notes during classes; others by messages forwarded through email; and others I have no way of tracing back the origin. This is an acknowledgement to the original writers/owners for their valuable effort. I uploaded them for archiving and personal purposes.
FIQH AS-SIYAM فقه الصيام
JURISPRUDENCE ON FASTING
4 SOURCES OF ISLAM
- QUR’AN (القرأن) – the last and final revelation of Allah Ta’ala
- SUNNAH (السنة) – the whole life of the Prophet ﷺ
- IJMA (الإجماع) – consensus; general opinion; opinion by majority [of Muslim scholars]
- QIYAS (القياس) – analogy; way of reasoning that might explain a thing by comparing it to another thing; comparison of two different things in order to find out their similarities.
- The following Hadith shows the proper procedure for applying Islamic guidance that would eventually develop into the discipline of Usul Al-Fiqh (principles of Islamic Jurisprudence). When the Prophet ﷺ sent Mu’adh bin Jabal (radiyallahu anhu) to Yemen to teach Islam to the converts there, he asked him how he will do it. Harith ibn Amr (radiyallahu anhu) reported: “Some men among the companions of Mu’adh said that the Messenger of Allah sent him to Yemen and the Prophet said: ‘How will you judge? Mu’adh said: ‘I will judge according to what is in the Book of Allah.’ The Prophet said: ‘What if it is not in the Book of Allah?’ Mu’adh said: ‘Then with the tradition (Sunnah) of the Messenger of Allah.’ The Prophet said: ‘What if it is not in the tradition of the Messenger of Allah?’ Mu’adh said: ‘Then I will strive to form an opinion (Ijtihad).’ The Prophet said: ‘All praise is due to Allah who has made suitable the messenger of the Messenger of Allah.’” [Sunan At-Tirmidhi 1327, Grade: Sahih]
- Amir ibn Al-As (radiyallahu anhu) reported: “I heard the Messenger of Allah say: ‘If a judge makes a ruling, striving to apply his reasoning (Ijtihad) and he is correct, then he will have two rewards; and if a judge makes a ruling, striving to apply his reasoning and he is mistaken, then he will have one reward.’” [Sahih Muslim, Book 18, Number 4261]
- ISRAELIYAT (الاسرائلياتال) – came from Torah and Injil that are true and not against Islam, so they can be narrated.