Sawm: Shurut Wa Arkan

 CONDITIONS (SHURUT) OF SIYAM

  1. Believer of One God (Islam)
  2. Sanity (Aqil)
  3. Maturity (Baligh)
  4. Ability (Qadir)
  5. Resident (Muqim)

WHAT IF?

  • If in Ramadan a child reached adulthood, or an unbeliever accepted Islam, they abstain [from things which invalidate fasting] for the remainder of that day and fast that which comes thereafter.  They do not make up what passed.
  • If a traveler arrives [at his place of residence], or a [menstruating] woman attains purity with part of the day [remaining], they abstain [from those things which invalidate fasting] for the rest of that day

THOSE EXEMPTED

  1. Minor
  2. Mentally-retarded
  3. Aged [should feed a needy every day]
  4. Sick
  5. Traveler
  6. Pregnant women
  7. Nursing women
  8. Menstruating women
  9. Women in post-childbirth bleeding 

NOTE: Number 6-9 should fast an equal number of days after

2 PILLARS (RUKNIN) OF SIYAM

1. Stress the intention to fast in the night before the break of dawn

  • The Prophet ﷺ said: “Whoever does not make an intention to fast before daybreak, there is no fast for him.” [Abu Dawud, Nasa’i, Tirmidhi]
  • General: on the first night of Ramadan, intend to fast the whole month
  • Specific: then every night, intend to fast the following day

2. To refrain from all things which nullify the fast from dawn to sunset

INTENTION FOR VOLUNTARY FAST

It is not a condition to intend the preceding night. It is valid to have the intention to fast that same day during the morning, before the sun moves from the center of the sky towards the west (i.e. middle of the day), as long as he had not committed any of the invalidators of fasting since the dawn appeared.