Sawm: Mubtilat

INVALIDATORS OF FAST مبطلات الصيام


2 TYPES THAT INVALIDATE THE FAST

1.       Things coming out of the body resulting in weakness

  • Sexual intercourse, deliberate vomiting, menstruation …
  • The weakness that results from fasting cannot be combined with the weakness that results from these things, thus harming the person

2.       Things entering the body

  • Eating
  • Drinking
  • Smoking
  • Because it does not achieve the purpose of fasting
  • The following verse mentioned the main things that invalidate the fast. “…So now have sexual relations with them and seek that which Allah has ordained for you (offspring), and eat and drink until the white thread (light) of  dawn appears to you distinct from the black thread (darkness of night)…” [Al-Baqarah 2:187]
  • The other things that break the fast were mentioned in the Sunnah

THINGS THAT BREAK THE FAST

  • Intercourse
  • Masturbation
  • Eating and drinking
  • Absorption of anything into stomach that is regarded as coming under the same heading as eating and drinking
  • Vomiting deliberately
  • Menstruation and post-childbirth bleeding

Note: Except the last one, these will only invalidate the fast if the 3 conditions are met

3 CONDITIONS WHY FAST IS INVALID

  1. That the person was aware of the ruling and not ignorant of it
  2. That he did it knowingly and not out of forgetfulness
  3. That he did it by choice and was not forced to do it

SEXUAL INTERCOURSE

  • Most serious
  • What to do? Repent, fast the rest of that day, make up that day’s fast later on and offer a severe expiation (like Zihar): Free a slave, fast for 2 consecutive months, feed 60 poor people
  • No expiation is required for any of the things that break the fast apart from intercourse

MASTURBATION

  • Causing ejaculation or climax by using the hand etc.
  • Repent, fast the rest of the day, and make up that day’s fast later on
  • If he starts to masturbate then stops without ejaculating, he has to repent, but his fast is still valid

EATING/DRINKING

  • This refers to food or drink reaching the stomach via the mouth
  • If anything reaches the stomach via the nose, this is like eating or drinking. The Prophet ﷺ said: “Snuff up water deeply into the nose (when doing Wudu), except when you are fasting.” [Narrated by At-Tirmidhi, 788]
  • If someone has food in his mouth when Fajr is beginning, he should spit it out. If he is having intercourse, he should immediately stop. If he does so, his fast is still be valid. If he continues, his fast is invalid
  • Aishah (Radiyallahu Anha – may Allah be pleased with her) that the Prophet ﷺ said: “Bilal makes the call to prayer while it is still night; therefore, eat and drink until Ibn Umm Maktum makes the call to prayer.” [Bukhari and Muslim]
  • Accidental eating/drinking: The Prophet ﷺ said: “If anyone forgets while he is fasting and eats or drinks by accident, he should complete his fast, for it is Allah who has fed him and given him drink.” [Bukhari, Muslim]

THINGS WHICH ARE OVERLOOKED

  • Saliva
  • Dust
  • Sifting flour (inc. powdered spices…)
  • Tasting liquid food while cooking
  • Tasting food you want to buy

CLEANING THE MOUTH AND NOSE

  • These acts are allowed in general, but it is disliked to exaggerate
  • If water reaches the throat unintentionally and not due to exaggeration, there is no problem
  • Rinsing, gargling, spraying, brushing (Siwak , toothbrush) but avoid swallowing anything that reaches the throat

ANYTHING REGARDED AS EATING/DRINKING

  • Blood transfusion because blood is formed from food and drinks
  • Receiving via a needle nourishing substances replacing food and drink

ANY TYPE OF INJECTION

  • Injections do not break the fast, either intravenous or intramuscular (penicillin, insulin…) if it is for medical treatment; for energizing the body, or for vaccinations
  • To be on the safe side, these injections may be given at night
  • It does not matter if it reaches the stomach because it did not reach through the customary manner

INDUCED VOMITING

  • The Prophet ﷺ said: “Whoever vomits involuntarily does not have to make up the fast, but whoever vomits deliberately let him make up the fast.” [Narrated by Al-Tirmidhi, 720]
  • How? sticking the finger in the throat, pressing the stomach, smelling something nasty, looking something nasty
  • Do not suppress vomiting if gorge rises because it is harmful

HAID/NIFAS

  • The Prophet ﷺ said: “Is it not the case that when she gets her period, she does not pray or fast?” [Narrated by Al-Bukhari, 304]
  • Invalid fast: if she sees the blood even for a moment before sunset
  • Valid fast: if she feels that her menses has started but no blood comes out until sunset
  • Valid fast: if her bleeding stops at night and she intended to fast but dawn comes before she does Ghusl (do Ghusl for Fajr prayer)
  • Preferable to keep her natural cycle, not to take any medicine to prevent it and make up those days later on. If she takes pills to stop her period, she can fast and still acceptable

HIJAMAH

  • Blood cupping (Hijamah) is letting out the bad blood beneath the skin as a medical treatment
  • The Prophet ﷺ said:  “The cupper [Al-Hajim] and the cupped [Al-Mahjum] have have both invalidated their fast .” [Sahih Al-Jami]. It used to be an act that breaks the fast but was allowed later as the Prophet ﷺ did it while fasting
  • It may mean that cupping may lead to breaking the fast (i.e. weakening of the body), then it is disliked to do it

LETTING BLOOD DELIBERATELY

  • If the amount of blood is large and has an effect on the body, then fast is invalid (example: blood donation)
  • If the amount of blood is small and does no harm on the body, then fast is valid (example: blood test)

LETTING BLOOD UNDELIBERATELY

  • Even if the amount of blood is large, fast is still valid (example: accident, nosebleed, injury,  tooth extraction, surgery…)
  • If the amount of blood is of such a large amount that one becomes weak, then it is permissible to break the fast and should make up another day

PERFUME

  • Permissible to put in whatever form (incense, oil, spray …)
  • But INCENSE is not permissible to inhale because it contains particles which, if inhaled, may reach the stomach through the nose

POURING WATER OR SUBMERSING ONE’S SELF IN WATER

  • Abu Bakr ibn Abdurrahman (Radiyallahu Anhu – may Allah be pleased with him) reported from a number of companions that they had seen the Prophet pour water over his head while he was fasting due to thirst or extreme heat. [Ahmad, Malik, and Abu Dawud with a Sahih chain]
  • It is related from Aishah (Radiyallahu Anha – may Allah be pleased with her) that the Prophet would rise in the morning on a fasting day and then would perform Ghusl (a complete bath). If during the bath some water is swallowed unintentionally, the fast is still valid. [Sahih Al-Bukhari and Muslim]

PUTTING KOHL, EYE-DROPS OR ANYTHING ELSE TO THE EYES

  • These acts are all permissible, even if some taste from it finds its way to the throat, as the eyes are not a passageway to the stomach
  • Anas (Radiyallahu Anhu – may Allah be pleased with him) reported that he would apply kohl while he was fasting
  • This is the opinion of the Shaf’iyyah (others have the same opinion)

KISSING FOR ONE WHO HAS THE ABILITY TO CONTROL HIMSELF

  • It is confirmed that Aishah (Radiyallahu Anha – may Allah be pleased with her) said: “The Prophet would kiss and embrace while he was fasting, for he had the most control of all of you over his desires.” Umar said: “I was excited one time and I kissed [my wife] while I was fasting. I went to the Prophet and said: ‘Today I committed a horrendous act – I kissed while I was fasting.’” The Prophet asked: “What do you think of rinsing with water while fasting?” I said: “There is nothing wrong with that.” The Prophet said: “Then what is the question about?”
  • The Hanafiyyah and Shaf’iyyah say that it is disliked if it incites one’s desires. If it does not do so, it is not disliked but better to avoid it
  • It does not matter, young or old, the kiss was on the cheek, lips …
  • Touching with the hand or embracing follow the same ruling as kissing

PERMISSIBLE TO BREAK  A VOLUNTARY FAST

  • Abu Sa’id Al-Khudri (Radiyallahu Anhu – may Allah be pleased with him) said: “I prepared food for the Prophet. He came to me with some of his companions. When the food was laid out, one of the men said: ‘I am fasting.’ The Messenger of Allah said: ‘Your brother has invited you and incurred expenses in your behalf. Break your fast and fast another day in its place if you wish.’” [Related by Al-Baihaqi; Al-Hafizh says it has a Hassan chain]

THINGS THAT DO NOT INVALIDATE FAST (MEDICAL)

  • Enemas, eye drops, ear-drops, tooth extraction, tooth fillings and treatment of injuries
  • Medical tablets that are placed under the tongue to treat asthma attacks, etc. as long as you avoid swallowing any residue
  • Insertion into the vagina (medical instrument like speculum, IUD, pessary, doctor’s fingers for medical exam…)
  • Anything that enters the urinary tract (catheter tube, medical scopes, opaque dyes inserted for the purpose of x-rays, or medicine, or a solution to wash the bladder)
  • Oxygen or anesthetic gases, so long as that does not give the patient any kind of nourishment
  • Anything that enters the body via absorption through the skin (creams, poultices, etc.)
  • Insertion of a fine tube via the veins for diagnostic imaging or treatment of the veins of the heart or any part of the body
  • Insertion of a scope through the stomach wall to examine the intestines by means of a surgical operation (laparoscopy)
  • Taking samples from the liver or any other part of the body, so long as that is not accompanied by administration of solutions
  • Endoscopy, so long as that is not accompanied by administration of solutions or other substances
  • Introduction of any medical instruments or materials to the brain or spinal column
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