These are very old files and I uploaded them for archiving and personal purposes.


  1. Fiqh us-Sunnah by Shiekh Sayyid Sabiq
  2. Prayer of the Prophet ﷺ by Sheikh Muhammad Nasiruddin Al-Albani
  3. Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence by Muhammad Hashim Kamali
  4. Sheikh Salman Al-Oudah (islamtoday.com)

Important to know…

 HALAL حلال

  • Allowed / Lawful
  • Anything or any act that Allah allowed

HARAM حرام

  • Plural: Muharramat
  • Prohibited / Forbidden / Unlawful
  • An act that Allah has absolutely prohibited
  • Punished if done; rewarded if avoided

MAKRUH مكروه

  • Hated / Disliked / Undesirable
  • An act that Allah disliked, yet did not prevent it completely
  • Its category is less than the Haram
  • No punishment if done; rewarded if avoided; better to avoid it

MANDUB المندوب

  • Also called Sunnah, Nafilah (plu. Nawafil), Tatawwu


  • Recommended / Desirable / Preferred
  • An act that Allah asks to be done, but does not strictly requires

MUBAH مباح

  • Permissible / Allowed (Ja’iz) / Lawful
  • An act that Allah neither orders nor forbids
  • No reward no punishment for doing unless the intention is for Allah
  • Example: drinking, eating playing sports

ADA اداء

  • To perform an act of worship on its prescribed time

QADA قضاء

  • Making-up of missed act of worship (to perform it outside of its time)

FARD فرض

  • Plural: Fara’id فرائض / Furud فروض
  • A prescribed duty/a command
  • An act that Allah strictly requires to be done
  • Rewarded if done; punished if not done

FARD AYN فرض عين

  • An individual duty
  • A personal obligation
  • An act that must be done by every individual
  • Example: 5 pillars of Islam

FARD KIFAYAH فرض كفاية

  • A collective duty
  • An act that requires a group of Muslims in a community to do to suffice the others
  • Example: preparing the dead for burial and funeral prayer


  • Plural: Shurut شروط
  • A prerequisite; a precondition; a requirement that must be done before the act
  • An act that must be done before doing an act of worship
  • One is not excused due to ignorance, forgetfulness or deliberate omission
  • Act is invalid without it
  • Example: Istinja is a Shart of Wudu, Wudu is a Shart of Salah

RUKN ركن

  • Plural: Arkan
  • A corner/pillar
  • An act or a deed, without which the act would be incomplete/wrong
  • One is not excused due to ignorance, forgetfulness or deliberate omission
  • Act is invalid without it
  • Example: Al-Fatihah

WAJIB واجب

  • Plural: Wajibat
  • Obligatory
  • A basic element of an act or a deed, without which the act would be incomplete
  • Example: Takbiratul Intiqal

SUNNAH السنة

  • Plural: Sunan سنن
  • Voluntary/optional
  • An act or a deed, without which the act would still complete/correct
  • Example: Isti’adhah
  • Literal meaning: path, system, custom, tradition, method, or way of life
  • Islamic meaning: the way of the whole life of the Prophet ﷺ
  1. Importance of Sunnah
  • …And whatever the Messenger has given you – take; and what he has forbidden you – refrain from. And fear Allah ; indeed, Allah is severe in penalty…. [Al-Hashr 59:7]
  • He who obeys the Messenger, has indeed obeyed Allah, but he who turns away, then we have not sent you. [An-Nisa 4:80]
  • It is not for a believer, man or woman, when Allah and His Messenger have decreed a matter that they should have any option in their decision. And whoever disobeys Allah and His Messenger, he has indeed strayed in a plain error. [Al-Ahzab 33:36]
  1. Sunnah includes 3 things:
    1. As-Sunnah Al-Qawliyah (السنة القـولية): anything that he said. Narration of Sunnah is called Hadith (plu. Ahadith) which literally means “any talking, speech
    2. As-Sunnah Al-Fi’liyah (السنة الفـعـلية): anything that he said and did (actions and manners)
    3. As-Sunnah At-Taqririyah (السنة التقـريرية): anything that he approved, did not approve, ordered, gave rulings