Salah: Shurut, Arkan, Wajibat

THE PRAYER   الصلاة

  • Plural: Salawat صلوات
  • Literal meaning: supplication
  • Islamic meaning: Salah starts with Takbir and ends with Taslim with specific words & action, prescribed 5 times a day & made obligatory on Al-Isra Wa Al-Mi’raj.

When you have finished the prayer, remember Allah standing, sitting down, and lying down on your sides, but when you are free from danger, perform the prayer. Verily, the prayer is enjoined on the believers at fixed hours. [An-Nisa 4:103]

Recite, [O Muhammad], what has been revealed to you of the Book and establish prayer. Indeed, prayer prohibits immorality and wrongdoing, and the remembrance of Allah is greater. And Allah knows that which you do. [Al-‘Ankabut 29:45]

SHART

  • Shart شرط (plu. Shurut شروط)
  • A prerequisite; a precondition; a requirement that must be done before the act
  • An act that must be done before doing an act of worship
  • One is not excused due to ignorance, forgetfulness or deliberate omission
  • Act is invalid without it

 9 Preconditions (Shurut) of Salah

  1. Islam (belief in Allah)
  2. Aql (sanity)
  3. Tamayiz (maturity): physical signs or age 15
  4. Nadafah (cleanliness): body, clothes, place
  5. Taharah (purity) from major and minor impurities: “Allah would not accept any Salah without being pure.” (Wudu – Ghusl – Tayammum)
  6. Satar Al-Awrah (covering the private parts). Awrah are the parts of the body which must be covered and must not be exposed to others). Use aThawb, a loose outer covering the body.
  7. Waqt As-Salah (timing of prayer)
  8. Itijah Al-Qiblah (facing the direction of prayer, i.e. K’abah in Makkah, KSA)
  9. Niyah (intention) in the heart

RUKN

  • Rukn ركن (plu. Arkan اركان)
  • A corner/pillar
  • An act or a deed, without which the act would be incomplete/wrong
  • One is not excused due to ignorance, forgetfulness or deliberate omission
  • Act is invalid without it
  • Do the missed pillar and do Sujud As-Sahu (prostration of forgetfulness)

14 Pillars (Arkan) of Salah

  1. Qiyam (standing straight)
  2. Takbirah Al-Ihram (opening Takbir)
  3. Reciting Surah Al-Fatihah
  4. Ruku (bowing)
  5. Rising from Ruku and standing straight
  6. Sujud (prostration)
  7. Jilsah/Julus/Jalasah: sitting between 2 Sujud
  8. Prostration (Sujud)
  9. Rising from Sujud
  10. The final Tashah-hud
  11. Sitting for the final Tashah-hud
  12. Taslim (saying the salutation)
  13. Having calmness (Kushu) during all of these acts
  14. Performing the above in the correct order

WAJIB

  • Wajib واجب (plu. Wajibat واجبات)
  • Obligatory
  • A basic element of an act, without which the act would be incomplete
  • One is excused due to ignorance or forgetfulness. Salah remains valid and Sujud As-Sahu can compensate for it. However, deliberate omission makes the Salah invalid.

8 Obligations (Wajibat) of Salah

  1. Takbirat Al-Intiqal: Saying “ALLAHU AKBAR”الله اكبر (Allah is greater than everything) in moving to the next act in Salah (except number 3)
  2. Tasbih: Saying “SUBHANA RABBIYAL ADHIM” العظيم سبحان ربي during Ruku
  3. Upon rising from Ruku: Saying “SAMI ALLAHU LIMAN HAMIDAH” سمع الله لمن حمده (Allah hears the one who praises Him)
  4. Tahmid: Saying “RABBANA WA LAKAL HAMD” ربنا ولك الحمد (Our Lord, and to You is all praise) for both Imam and follower
  5. Tasbih: Saying “SUBHANA RABBIYAL ALA” سبحان ربي الأعلى (Glory be to my Lord, the Highest) during Sujud
  6. Jilsah/Julus: Saying: “RABBIGHFIRLI” رب أغفرلي (O my Lord, forgive me) between 2 Sujud
  7. Tashah-hud (testimony) / Tahiyyat (greetings) in a 3/4-unit Salah: Saying the first Tashah-hud – AT-TAHIYYATU LILLAH WAS SALAWATU WAT TAYYIBAT. ASSALAMU ALAYKA AYYUHAN NABIYYU WA RAHMATULLAHI WA BARAKATUH. ASSALAMU ALAYNA WA ALA IBADILLAHIS SALIHIN.  ASH-HADU AN LA ILAHA ILLALLAH WA ASH-HADU ANNA MUHAMMAD RASULULLAH.
  8. Sitting for the first Tashah-hud