Allah’s Names are classified into two: TRANSITIVE and INTRANSITIVE
There are 3 components if the Name is transitive (requires an object).
- Believe in the Name itself: Example – Ar-Razzaq
- Believe in the meaning(attribute) of the Name: The One that provides
- Believe in the effect of the Name: trust and certainty that He will provide for you
There are 2 components if the Name is intransitive (does not require an object).
- Believe in the Name itself: Example – Al-Hayy
- Believe in the meaning (attribute) of the Name: The Ever-Living
Allah’s Attributes are classified into two: ESSENCE and ACTION
Find out the antonym for the Name to figure it out. For example, Ar-Razzaq, He “provides,” its antonym “withhold” can be ascribe to Allah, so it is an attribute of action. As-Sami, He “hears,” its antonym “deaf” cannot be ascribe to Allah, so it is an attribute of essence. [Extracted from Sheikh Salem Al-Amry’s audio lecture on Asma Al-Husna. IOU]
The holy Quran states that Allah has certain attributes such as hearing, sight, hands, face, shin, mercy, anger, coming, encompassing, descending, being above the Throne, etc. However, He disassociated Himself from the limitations of human attributes and imagination. Correct Islamic knowledge is to believe in these attributes without applying any allegorical meanings; without attempting to explain how a certain quality could be; without comparing to the creation; and without denying that He would have such a quality. His attributes are befitting to Him alone, as He said: “…There is nothing like unto Him….” [Ash-Shura 42:11]
Verses on Allah’s names
- “And (all) the Most Beautiful Names belong to Allah, so call on Him by them….” [Al-Áraf 7:180]
- “Say, Call upon Allah or call upon the Most Merciful. Whichever [name] you call – to Him belong the best names….” [Al-Isra 17: 110]
- “Allah – there is no deity except Him. To Him belong the best names.” [Taha 20:8]
- “… He is Allah, the Creator, the Inventor, the Fashioner; to Him belong the best names.” [Al-Hashr 59:24]
Ahadith on Allah’s names
- Abu Hurairah (radiyallahu anhu) narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ) said: “Allah has ninety nine names, i.e. one hundred minus one, and whoever counts them (Ahsaha) will enter Paradise.” [Bukhari and Muslim]
- Ibn Mas’ud (radiyallahu anhu) narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ) said while supplicating to his Lord: “I beseech You by every name You have, by which You have named Yourself, or have revealed in Your Book, or taught any of Your creatures, or preserved in the knowledge of the unseen that is with You.…” [Musnad Ahmad (3712, 4318), Sahih Ibn Hibban (972) and Mustadrak al-Hakim (1/507)]
- Regarding the intercession ofthe Prophet (ﷺ) on the Day of Judgment, he foretells that he will prostrate beneath the Throne, and then Allah will reveal to him words of praise that had never before been taught to anyone. [Sahih al-Bukhari (7410) and Sahih Muslim (193)]
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